Vernier caliper or vernier scale is used for accurate measurement through
mechanical interpolation. The instrument is named after its founder Pierre Vernier. The main
use of the vernier calliper is to calculate the internal and external diameters of hollow cylinders and round objects.
Parts of Vernier Caliper
The main parts of vernier caliper are:
● Main Scale
● Vernier scale
● Lock screw
● Depth Rod
● A fixed jaw, and
● Sliding jaw
Uses of Vernier Calliper
Vernier calliper is used in various industries and engineering applications along with
laboratories. The three major uses of the vernier caliper are:
● Vernier caliper is used for measuring the length of the object.
● Vernier caliper is used to measure the internal diameter of circular objects and tubes.
● Vernier caliper is used to measure the depth of a beaker or bottle.
● Vernier calipers are used in scientific labs to read the effect of thermal variations
and measure the objects being used.
● The aviation industry uses accurate measurements. Various types of vernier calipers like
digital dial calipers are used in the aerospace sector.
Types of Vernier Caliper
The different types of vernier calipers are:
● Flat And Knife Edge Vernier Caliper – This type of vernier caliper is very flexible and
easily measures all types of measurements.
● Vernier Dail Caliper – It measures in inches and millimeters.
● Knife Edge Vernier Caliper – The edge is similar to a knife and is used for measuring
narrow space, a distance of bolt holes.
● Vernier Depth Gauge – This instrument is used to measure the slot’s depth. The
three types of measurement can be taken from this.
● Flat Edge Vernier Caliper – It is used for normal functions like measuring outer
measurement length, breadth, thickness, and diameter.
● Vernier Height Gauge – It is used for taking accurate measurements of a job’s height or creating it.
● Vernier Gear Tooth Caliper – It is structured like a combination of two vernier calipers.
It contains both horizontal and vertical scales. This vernier caliper can measure different
parts of gear.
Zero Error Of Vernier Caliper
The zero mark on the vernier scale is slightly different from the zero mark on the main scale. It
does not coincide with that zero mark on the main scale. Zero errors are of three types specified
● No Zero Error – In no zero error, zero on the main scale coincides with zero of the
vernier scale. Both are straight, so the vernier caliper is free from zero error.
● Positive Zero Error – In positive zero error, the jaws of the vernier caliper are just closed
and the reading is away from the actual reading of 0.00 mm.
● Negative Zero Error – In negative zero error, the vernier scale is at the left side of the
main scale zero.
How to Use Vernier Caliper?
Steps to use the vernier caliper are mentioned below:
1. Clean the caliper to avoid errors.
2. Loose the clamping screws of both sliding jaws and set the larger jaw.
3. Clamp nut is carried to the beam. Make sure not to lock the screw of the clamp of
4. Place the fixed jaw in contact with reference point.
5. Align the parallel beam of the calliper towards the measuring lines.
6. Turn the adjusting nut for a movable jaw to touch the parts.
7. Now tighten the clamp screw on the movable jaw.
8. Make sure it is not disturbing the caliper.
9. Now read without any movement or else remove the caliper.
10. Record the reading.
11. Steps can be repeated for accuracy.
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